2.3. Installing Virtuozzo with CLI Management

To install Virtuozzo with CLI management in graphics mode, choose Install Virtuozzo 7 with CLI management on the welcome screen. After the installation program loads, you will see the Installation Summary screen. On this screen, you need to specify a number of parameters required to install Virtuozzo.

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2.3.1. Accepting EULA

You need to accept the Virtuozzo End-User License Agreement to install Virtuozzo.

To accept the Virtuozzo EULA, open the EULA screen, select Accept, and click Done.

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2.3.2. Setting Date and Time

If you need to set the date and time for your Virtuozzo installation, open the DATE & TIME screen and make the necessary changes.

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2.3.3. Selecting the Keyboard Layout

The selected keyboard layout can be used during installation and, once the installation is complete, in the console (e.g., for entering localized descriptions, configuration file comments, and such).

If you need to change the default English (US) keyboard layout, open the KEYBOARD screen, click the plus sign to add a layout, and click Options to choose a key combination for switching layouts.

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2.3.4. Configuring Network

Usually network is configured automatically by the installation program. If you need to modify network settings, you can do so on the NETWORK & HOST NAME screen.

To install Virtuozzo, you will need to have at least one network card configured and you will also need to provide a hostname: either a fully qualified domain name (<hostname>.<domainname>) or a short name (<hostname>).

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2.3.4.1. Creating Bonded and Teamed Connections

Bonded and teamed connections offer increased throughput beyond the capabilities of a single network card as well as improved redundancy.

During installation, you can configure bonding on the NETWORK & HOSTNAME screen as described below. Teaming can be configured in a similar way after choosing Team on step 1.

  1. To add a new bonded connection, click the plus button in the bottom, select Bond from the drop-down list, and click Add.

    ../_images/stor_install1.png
  2. In the Editing Bond connection... window, set the following parameters:

    1. Mode to XOR.
    2. Link Monitoring to MII (recommended).
    3. Monitoring frequency, Link up delay, and Link down delay to 300.
    ../_images/stor_install2.png

    Note

    It is also recommended to manually set xmit_hash_policy to layer3+4 after the installation. For more information on network bonding, see Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide and Linux Ethernet Bonding Driver HOWTO.

  3. In the Bonded connections section on the Bond tab, click Add.

  4. In the Choose a Connection Type window, select Ethernet from the in the drop-down list, and click Create.

    ../_images/stor_install3.png
  5. In the Editing bond slave... window, select a network interface to bond from the Device drop-down list.

    ../_images/stor_install4.png
  6. Configure other parameters if required and click Save.

  7. Repeat steps 3 to 7 for each network interface you need to add to the bonded connection.

  8. Configure other parameters if required and click Save.

The connection will appear in the list on the NETWORK & HOSTNAME screen.

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2.3.4.2. Creating VLAN Adapters

While installing Virtuozzo, you can also create virtual local area network (VLAN) adapters on the basis of physical adapters on the NETWORK & HOSTNAME screen as described below.

  1. To add a new VLAN adapter, click the plus button in the bottom, select VLAN from the drop-down list, and click Add.

    ../_images/vzinstall34.png
  2. In the Editing VLAN connection... window:

    1. Select a physical adapter the VLAN adapter will be based on from the Parent interface drop-down list.
    2. Specify a VLAN adapter identifier in the VLAN ID field. The value must be in the 1-4094 range.
    ../_images/vzinstall35.png
  3. Configure other parameters if required and click Save.

The VLAN adapter will appear in the list on the NETWORK & HOSTNAME screen.

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2.3.5. Choosing the Storage Type

To choose the storage type, open the SELECT STORAGE TYPE screen:

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Virtuozzo with CLI management can be installed on two types of storage:

  • Basic storage, i.e. local hard drive(s). This option is chosen by default and requires no configuration.

  • Virtuozzo Storage, as a part of a new or existing Virtuozzo Storage cluster. If you choose this option, you will need to set additional options described in Setting Virtuozzo Storage Installation Options.

    Note

    Virtuozzo Storage is a solution that transforms local hard drives into a highly protected enterprise-level storage (like SAN or NAS) with data replication, high-availability, and self-healing features. Using Virtuozzo Storage, you can safely store and run virtual machines and containers, migrate them with zero downtime, provide high availability for your Virtuozzo installations, and much more. For more information on Virtuozzo Storage, see the Virtuozzo Storage Administrator’s Guide.

2.3.6. Setting Virtuozzo Storage Installation Options

If you choose to install on Virtuozzo Storage, you need to choose one of these options:

2.3.6.1. Creating a New Virtuozzo Storage Cluster

If you choose to create a new Virtuozzo Storage cluster, you will need to provide the cluster name and password and select one or more roles for your server.

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First, in the Name field, specify a name for the cluster that will uniquely identify it among other clusters in your network. A cluster name must consist of the characters a-z, A-Z, 0-9, minus (-), underscore (_), and must not be longer than 63 characters long.

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Next, click Configure security next to the Name field and specify a password for your cluster. The password must be at least 8 characters long. It is encrypted and saved to the file /etc/vstorage/clusters/<cluster_name>/auth_digest.key on the server.

Note

A server needs to be authenticated only once. After that, you can configure it as a metadata server, chunk server, or a client. If later you decide to configure the server where you are setting the first MDS as a chunk server, no additional authentication will be required.

Next, choose the cluster role(s) for your server. See Virtuozzo Storage Server Roles. When you create a new Virtuozzo Storage cluster, the Metadata Server Role option is selected by default.

2.3.6.2. Joining an Existing Virtuozzo Storage Cluster

If you choose to join an existing Virtuozzo Storage cluster, you will need to provide the cluster name and password and select one or more roles for your server.

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First, in the Name field, specify a name of the cluster to join.

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Next, click Configure security next to the Name field and specify a password for your cluster.

Next, choose the role(s) for your server. See Virtuozzo Storage Server Roles.

2.3.6.3. Virtuozzo Storage Server Roles

Each Virtuozzo server can have one, some, or all of the following roles.

  • Metadata Server Role. MDS servers are an essential part of any Virtuozzo Storage cluster. They store metadata about chunk servers and control how files keeping the contents of virtual machines and containers are split into chunks and where these chunks are located.

    ../_images/vzinstall8.png

    As a static IP address is required for an MDS server, the IP address detected by the installation program is specified in the corresponding field by default. If multiple IP addresses are available, you need to to choose one to assign to the MDS server. In some cases, you may need to enter a valid IP address manually.

    Note

    MDS servers require static IP addresses. If you are using DHCP, map an IP address to the MAC address of the MDS server.

  • Chunk Server Role. Chunk servers (CS) store the contents of virtual machines and containers in the form of fixed-size chunks and provide access to these chunks. All data chunks are replicated and the replicas are kept on different chunk servers for high data availability. If one of the chunk servers goes down, other chunk servers continue providing the replicas of data chunks that were stored on the failed server.

    ../_images/vzinstall9.png

    Warning

    Virtuozzo Storage has redundancy built in, so you should avoid running Virtuozzo Storage on redundant types of RAID like 1, 5, or 6 over local storage. In this case, a single write operation may affect a significant number of HDDs resulting in very poor performance. For example, for 3 Virtuozzo Storage replicas and RAID5 on servers with 5 HDDs each, a single write operation may result in 15 I/O operations. For recommendations on optimal local storage configurations, consult the Virtuozzo Storage Administrator’s Guide.

    By default, the installer does the following:

    • If your server has several disk drives, the installer will automatically configure each disk drive except system to act as a separate chunk server.

    • If one or more SSD drives are available on the server, they will be set up to store chunk server write journals (one journal per chunk server). By using SSD drives for write journaling, you can boost the performance of write operations in the cluster by up to two or more times. For more information on using SSD drives, consult the Virtuozzo Storage Administrator’s Guide. If you need to disable this setting, click Configure under the chunk server role checkbox and clear the checkbox Enable the use of SSD drives for the CS journal.

      ../_images/vzinstall10.png

      Note

      If one or more SSDs are not detected automatically, find out their device names (for example, invoke the console by pressing Ctrl+Alt+F2 and run lsblk -d -o name,rota, zeroes in the ROTA column will indicate non-rotational drives, i.e. SSDs), reboot to the installer welcome screen, and follow instructions in Enabling Forced Detection of SSDs.

  • Client Server Role. Clients are computers with Virtuozzo 7 from where you run virtual machines and containers stored in your Virtuozzo Storage cluster.

    ../_images/vzinstall11.png

    By default, the installer does the following:

    • Enables high availability support for the client and for all virtual machines and containers you will create on it. With high availability turned on, if the client fails, all virtual machines and containers hosted on it will be automatically moved to a healthy server. For detailed information on high availability, consult the Virtuozzo 7 User’s Guide.

    • If one or more SSD drives are available on the server, the installer configures them to store a local cache of frequently accessed data. By having a local cache on an SSD drive, you can increase the overall cluster performance by up to 10 and more times. For more information on using SSD drives, consult the Virtuozzo Storage Administrator’s Guide.

      Note

      If one or more SSDs are not detected automatically, find out their drive letters (for example, invoke the console by pressing Ctrl+Alt+F2 and run lsblk -d -o name,rota, zeroes in the ROTA column will indicate non-rotational drives, i.e. SSDs), reboot to the installer welcome screen, and follow instructions in Enabling Forced Detection of SSDs.

    To change either of these settings, click Configure under the client role checkbox and set the corresponding checkboxes in the client settings window.

    ../_images/vzinstall12.png

2.3.7. Partitioning the Hard Drives

Having chosen the storage type, you need to choose partitioning options on the INSTALLATION DESTINATION screen.

Warning

All the existing partitions on all disks will be deleted.

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Firstly, you will need to choose which of the disks are marked as System, Datastore, and Cache:

  • Use the System radio button to select a disk where the root partition with Virtuozzo system files (mounted to /) will be kept.
  • Use Datastore checkboxes to mark disks where virtual machines and containers will be kept. All such disks will be organized into a single volume group and mounted to the /vz mount point. At least one disk need to be marked as a data store. If Virtuozzo Storage chunk server role is selected, a chunk server will be created on each disk marked as a data store (in this case, the system disk cannot be marked as a data store).
  • Use Cache checkboxes to mark SSD drives where journals and cache will be kept. This option is only applicable for SSD drives to be used in Virtuozzo Storage clusters.

Secondly, in the bottom of the screen, you will need to choose:

  • Automatically configure partitioning and click Done to have the installation program create the default layout on the server.
  • I will configure partitioning and click Done to manually partition your disk(s).

When partitioning the disks, keep in mind that Virtuozzo requires these partitions:

  • Boot: mount point /boot, 1 GB, boot partition with Virtuozzo boot files, created on each HDD,
  • Root: mount point /, 12-24 GB, root partition with Virtuozzo files, created on the HDD marked System,
  • Swap: paging partition with the swap file system, created on the HDD marked System. The size depends on RAM:
    • if RAM is below 2 GB, swap size should be twice the RAM,
    • if RAM is 2-8 GB, swap size should be equal to RAM,
    • if RAM is 8-64 GB, swap size should be half the RAM,
    • otherwise swap size should be 32 GB.
  • Data storage, depends on the chosen storage type:
    • Local: mount point /vz, at least 30 GB, storage for virtual machines, containers, and OS and application templates, an LVM volume group that spans all HDDs marked Datastore. The /vz partition must be formatted to ext4 tuned for VZ (which is ext4 with additional mount options that improve Virtuozzo performance).
    • Virtuozzo Storage chunk server: mount point <cluster_name>-cs<N>, at least 100 GB, only required if the chunk server role is chosen. Chunk servers can only be created on partitions formatted to ext4 tuned for CS (which is ext4 with additional mount options that improve Virtuozzo Storage performance).
  • In addition, either a 1 MB partition with the BIOS boot file system or a 200 MB partition with the EFI boot file system is required depending on your server configuration.

A typical partition layout for Virtuozzo on basic storage may look like this:

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A typical partition layout for Virtuozzo on Virtuozzo Storage may look like this:

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2.3.8. Finishing Installation

Having configured everything necessary on the INSTALLATION SUMMARY screen, click Begin Installation.

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While Virtuozzo is installing, click ROOT PASSWORD to create a password for the root account. Installation will not finish until the password is created.

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While Virtuozzo is installing, you can also activate a Virtuozzo license and disable the automatic updating of Virtuozzo ReadyKernel patches if required.

2.3.8.1. Activating License

To activate a Virtuozzo license, click LICENSE KEY, enter a key, and click Done.

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If you do not have a license, you can get one by clicking “Try Virtuozzo Today” at https://virtuozzo.com/.

Alternatively, you can activate a license with the vzlicload command after the installation is complete. For more details, see the Virtuozzo 7 User’s Guide.

Note

If the license is not activated, containers and virtual machines will be deactivated (suspended without a possibility to resume) after a grace period. All the newly created containers and virtual machines will run for 5 minutes. Containers with Virtuozzo Storage and Virtuozzo Automator management panels (if installed) will run for 24 hours.

2.3.8.2. Configuring ReadyKernel

With automatic updating enabled by default, ReadyKernel will check for new patches daily at 12:00 server time. If a patch is available, ReadyKernel will download, install, and load it for the current kernel. For more details, see the Virtuozzo 7 User’s Guide.

While Virtuozzo is installing, you can disable the automatic updating of Virtuozzo ReadyKernel patches if required. To do this, click READYKERNEL, uncheck ReadyKernel automatic update, and click Done.

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2.3.8.3. Completing Installation

Once the installation is complete, click Reboot to restart the server.

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Note

If you are installing Virtuozzo from a USB drive, remove the drive before restarting the server.

After restart, you will see the login prompt as well as the server IP address and hostname that you can use to connect to the server remotely.

To manage virtual machines and containers on the Virtuozzo server, you will need to log in as the root user. After you do so, you will see a shell prompt and can start creating and managing your virtual machines and containers. For quick-start instructions, run man afterboot. More detailed information is provided in the Virtuozzo 7 User’s Guide.